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United Republic of Tanzania
Name: United Republic of Tanzania.
Data code: TZ
Time: GMT plus 3hr
Head of State:
H. E Mr. Jakaya M
Head of Government:
Government Headquarters: Dar-es-Salaam
(later to be transferred to Dodoma)
Ruling Party: Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM).
Official Currency: Tanzania Shilling.
100 cents = 1 shilling.
Sisal, cloves, coffee, cotton, cashew nuts, minerals, tobacco
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flag has four colours: Green, Gold, Black and Blue: divided
diagonally by a (golden) yellow-edged black band from the lower
hoist-side corner; the upper triangle (hoist side) is green and
the lower triangle is blue.
Black = the
Green = the Land
Blue = the Adjoining
Gold = the Mineral
Emblem Description :
feature of the Coat of Arms is the Warrior’s Shield which bears a
Golden portion on the upper part followed underneath by the United
Republic flag of Green, Golden, Black and Blue; and a Red portion
under which are wavy bands of blue and white.
The Golden portion
represents minerals in the United Republic; the Red portion underneath the flag
symbolises the fertile red soil of Africa; while the wavy bands represent the land, sea, lakes and coastal
lines of the United Republic.
The Shield is set upon a
representation of Mount Kilimanjaro. On each side
of the Shield there is an elephant tusk supported by a man
on the left (as you look at the emblem) and a
woman on the right symbolising both the theme of
co-operation and gender and equality of the people of
Tanzania. At the feet of the man is a clove bush and at
the feet of the woman is a cotton bush symbolising
agriculture in the Republic.
features on the Shield are flames of a burning torch which
signifies freedom, enlightenment and knowledge;
a spear signifying defence of
freedom and crossed axe and hoe being
tools that the people of the United Republic use in
The Uhuru Torch
The Uhuru Torch
symbolises freedom and light. It was first lit on
top of mount Kilimanjaro (5,895m) in 1961, to symbolically
shine throughout the country and across the borders to bring
hope where there is despair, love where there is enmity and
respect where there is hatred. Yearly there is the Uhuru Torch
race, starting from different prominent places in the
The United Republic motto:
"Uhuru na Umoja" = Freedom and Unity, is written in
Kiswahili: the National Language of
Top of the
The United Republic of
Tanzania is located in the Eastern part of the African Continent between
longitude 29º and 41º East and Latitude
1º and 12º South. The most Northerly point
is Bukoba 1º South latitude and the most Southerly
point is Mtalika
12º South Latitude. The most Westerly point is
29º East of Greenwich and the most Easterly pointis Mtwara
41º East of Greenwich.
Tanzania borders on the Indian Ocean to the east, and
has land borders with eight countries, which anti-clockwise from the
north are Kenya 796 km, Uganda 396km, Rwanda 217km, Burundi 451km,
the Democratic Republic of Congo (across Lake Tanganyika) 478km,
Zambia 338km, Malawi 475km and Mozambique 750km, making a total of
3900 km. The country includes Zanzibar (consisting of
the main island of Unguja and Pemba; see
The total area, including
inland water and Zanzibar, is 945,087 sq. km. (364,900 sq. miles),
of which 886,040 sq. km is land and 62,050 sq. km is water. The
coastline is 1,424 km of which over 500 miles is of pure white
sandy and unspoiled beaches.
approximately half the size of all of the western European countries put
together and larger than twice the size of
Victoria 35,000 sq. km;
Nyasa (Lake Malawi) 6,000 sq. km;
Rukwa 3,000 sq. km;
over 1000 sq. km and other over 1000 sq. km.
The country comprises
several distinct zones: a fertile coastal belt, the Masai Steppe
and mountain ranges to the north, with Mt. Kilimanjaro
rising to 5,895m and Mount Meru 4,566m, and a high plateau in the
central and southern regions. There are over 61,000 sq. km (23.500
sq. miles) of inland water. Unguja Island, 36km from the Mainland,
is fertile, hilly, and densely populated on the West side, low and
thinly peopled in the East.
Lowest point: Indian Ocean
~ Sea Level (0m)
Highest point: Kilimanjaro
permanent crops: 1%;
permanent pastures: 40%; Forest and woodland: 40% and other 18%
1,500 sq. km (1993
Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm. Territorial
sea: 12 nm.
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There is no summer and
winter as such, as would be expected in the temperate climes of
Europe. Instead the seasons are divided as Wet (Masika and
Vuli) which last together for about 4 or 5 months, with the
remainder of the year being dry
(Kiangazi), hot and dusty.
It is tropical on the coast, where
it is mainly hot and humid (especially during the rainy season from March-May): semi-temperate in the
mountains (with the Short Rains (Masika) in November-December
and the Long Rains (Vuli) in February -May): and drier
(Kiangazi) in the plateau region with considerable seasonal
variations in temperature. Total rainfall increases towards the
north around lake Victoria. Rainfall is well distributed throughout
the year reaching peak during the period of March and
Temperature (Degree Centigrade) in the shade
Temperature (Degree Centigrade)
Come November out in the open in the
heat of the direct afternoon sun, just before the long rains break,
temperatures can reach as high as 52ºC (126ºF)
around Mpwapwa. Needless to say, the sun is seen as enemy Nº
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Lush tropical at
Forest and woodland covered
46% of the land in 1990 (a reduction of almost 6% by 1993!): in
the previous 35 years, coverage decreased by an average 0.3% p.a.
The rest of the country, apart from urban areas, is savannah and
Yearly timber production in Tanzania in
the late 1980s totalled about 24.8 million cu m (about 876 million
cu ft.), more than 90% of which was used as fuel. Timber includes
camphor, podo, padauk and African mahogany. The annual fish catch in the
late 1980s was about 313,500 metric tons, more than three-quarters
of which was caught in inland waters, especially Lake Victoria.
Sardines and tuna are caught in the Indian
Hydropower potential, gold, diamonds,
gemstones, nickel, natural gas, coal, iron ore, phosphates, tin,
mica, salt, lead, tungsten, pyrochlore, kaolin and magnesite.
hazards: vulnerable to flooding on
the central plateau during the rainy
season. Termites cause extensive damage to buildings.
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national parks and game reserves cover one-seventh of the country,
and include Serengeti National Park (itself slightly
larger in size than Northern Ireland (over 2,175 sq. km.
(5,600 sq. miles) which is famous for its
vast migratory herds of plains animals. notably wildebeest, zebra.
eland and kudu). Small bands of chimpanzees are found in the
Gombe National Park along Lake Tanganyika. The steep mountain
walls of Ngorongoro Park’s volcanic crater have provided
protection and a natural enclosure for animals in an environment of
great natural beauty. Rhino and elephant are still depleted by
poaching despite government protective
measures. The most accessible reserve (just 3½ hours drive) from Dar-es-Salaam
is Mikumi National Park, which straddles the main bituminised
road from Morogoro to Iringa, is a picturesque
wooded hill land forming a border to
the Mkata River flood plains and is the haunt of many elephant,
buffalo, Masai giraffe, hippopotamus,
the occasional lion and crocodile together with a great variety of bird life.
MAIN TOWNS |
(commercial capital and main port, population(1,651,900).
(capital designate 1,052,000).
Zanzibar North & Central
Zanzibar South & West (254,000)
Pemba North (167,000)
South (155,000) [figures from 1995 census].
There are 27 regions
(Mikoa); 1. Arusha, 2. Dar-es-Salaam, 3. Dodoma, 4. Iringa,
5. Kagera, 6. Kigoma, 7. Kilimanjaro, 8. Lindi, 9. Mafia, 10. Mara,
11. Mbeya, 12. Morogoro, 13. Mtwara, 14. Mwanza, 15. Pemba North,
16. Pemba South, 17. Pwani, 18. Rukwa, 19. Ruvuma, 20. Shinyanga,
21. Singida, 22. Tabora, 23. Tanga, 24. Zanzibar Central\South, 25.
Zanzibar North, 26. Zanzibar Urban\West & 27. Ziwa Magharibi.
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is 38.4 million (UN, 2005), giving a rate of population growth
1985-2005 period of 3.0% pa. (1997 est.) Outside the urban areas,
most of the country is sparsely populated. The birth rate is 46.0
per 1,000 population (1997) and death rate: 15.0 deaths per 1,000
(1997 est.). Life expectancy (at birth) is 49 years, 46 for men and
46 for women (UN, 2005). The figure is higher for those who
successfully reach the age of five. Infant mortality mainly
through malaria and malnutrition (especially among the under 2's)
sadly skews the figures all too significantly.
0-14 years: 47.1% (male
7,757,909; female 7,805,684); 15-64 years: 49.9% (male 8,044,561; female
65 years and over: 3% (male 399,747; female 460,256) (March 2001
Most of the people are of
Bantu origin representing 95% of the people, with some 120 tribes on the mainland,
none of which exceeds 10% of the population, others are of Asian,
Arab and Afro-Arab and European. The biggest African group is the
Sukuma: others include Masai, Haya, Gogo, Nyamwezi. Chagga. There
are people of mixed blood in the coastal area known as Swahilis as
well as Asian, Arabs and expatriate minorities. The large
number of small groups together with the unifying effects of having
one language (Kiswahili) gives great stability and peace in the
country as no one group can vie for total power, leading to a great
sense of interdependence and welfare among the people.
Traditional beliefs (30%) Islam (35%) and
Christianity (35%) est. Again relations between the various
religious groups is one of mutual understanding, respect and
tolerance, and where disputes do occur the root cause most often has
little to do with differences in belief.
The official language is
Kiswahili, which is universally spoken, in addition to various local
languages, and is the medium of instruction in all primary schools.
English is second official language, the country’s commercial
language and also the main teaching language for all scientific
subjects in secondary schools and higher education institutions,
Arabic is widely spoken in coastal areas (particularly
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EDUCATION AND HEALTH
Enrolment in primary school
education rose from 34% of the relevant age group in 1970 to 68% in
I992, but is still far from the national goal of compulsory
universal primary education. Secondary enrolment figures have been
low, at 5.5% of primary school leavers in 1985, but strong emphasis
on secondary education increased this proportion to 14.5% by 1995
(186,246 pupils in total).
number of primary schools in 1995 stood at
10,927, of which 10,908 are government schools and 19 private schools,
with a teaching staff 103,900 or which 296 are in private schools.
There are over 3.2 million pupils in primary
number of secondary schools in 1995 stood at
598 of which 259 are government schools and 336 are private schools,
with a teaching staff 10,612 of which 5,818 are in public schools and
4,798 in private schools. The number of students stood at 99,154 in
There are six universities in Tanzania:
the University of
the Sokoine University of
College of Medical Sciences in
and University College of
Lands, Architecture and Survey
(formerly Ardhi Institute of
In 1995 an Open
University was established for distance Education,
finally in 1998, Zanzibar established its
first ever University, in a newly built Campus in the outskirts of
Zanzibar town, known as the University of Zanzibar.
Entrants in the first two
mentioned Universities stood at 4,289 in 1994, with finalists
numbering 1,197. Three more private universities were established during
1997-98 whose figures are not yet available. In addition, there is
Institute of Finance Management in Dar-es-Salaam and Institute of
Development Management at Mzumbe, Morogoro.
The number of teacher training
colleges stood at 40 in 1995 plus 3 technical
The adult literacy rate was 84% in 1997.
Among the libraries in
Tanzania are the National Central Library, the British Council
Library and the American Centre Library, all in Dar-es-Salaam. The
University of Dar-es-Salaam has an important library and a lending
service at the Dar-es-Salaam Technical College circulates books by
mail throughout the country. Zanzibar has several community and
school libraries in addition to the Museum Library and the Zanzibar
National Archives, with very rich old Arabic manuscripts. The
National Museum of Tanzania is located at Dar-es-Salaam and the
Zanzibar Government Museum is located in the city of Zanzibar, near
The Tanzanian culture is a product
of African, Arab, European and Indian influences. Traditional African
values are being consciously adapted to modern
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The number of hospitals
increased from 152 in 1988 to 183 in 1995 and Dispensaries from
2,840 in 1988 to 3,286 in 1995; while the number of people in a
typical catchment area per doctor was reduced from 22,000 in 1991 to 20,000 in 1992. Latest
available figures give one nurse per 5,000 inhabitants. (These
figures do not take account of traditional health
Infant mortality was 82 per
1,000 live births in 1995. Tanzania’s health figures are in advance
of all other very poor countries, apart from Vietnam. Muhimbili
Medical Centre, in Dar-es-Salaam, is the country’s referral centre
and teaching hospital. There is considerable concern about
AIDS. In 1999 34% of blood donors (made up of those who
considered themselves to be in good health) in Mpwapwa were
The labour force is around
12m, most of whom are subsistence farmers. In the period 1990/91, of
the 12.3m employed persons, 10,889,205 people were employed on the
mainland: 869,725 were self-employed in agriculture and trade and
405,722 were casual workers.
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The semi-official Daily
News is published in English: Uhuru, owned by the
ruling party, CCM., is in Kiswahili. There are several independent
· Daily Mail
· Nipashe - in
· Alasiri - in
Tanzania's media scene, once small and largely state-controlled,
developed rapidly following the advent of the multi-party era in the
· Televisheni ya
Taifa (TVT) - state-run TV, has yet to achieve complete national
Television (ITV) - widely-watched private network, owned
by IPP group
· Dar es Salaam
Television (DTV) - private network operated by Africa Media Group
Television Network (CTN) - private, Dar es Salaam
· TV Zanzibar -
· Radio Tanzania
Dar es Salaam (RTD) - state-run
· Parapanda Radio
Tanzania (PRT) - state-run FM station set up to counter competition
for younger listeners from private stations
- private FM network
· Radio One -
private network owned by IPP group
· Radio Uhuru -
private FM station
· Kiss FM - private
Dar es Salaam English-language station
· Clouds FM - pop
music station available in Dar es Salaam and Arusha
· Orkonerei Radio
Service (ORS) - community network operated by non-governmental
· Voice of
Tanzania-Zanzibar - state-run radio on Zanzibar
· Press Services
There are 208 post offices in
Tanzania scattered around the country including Zanzibar. The post,
by average, takes between ten to fifteen days to Europe and Middle
East by air mail and fifteen to twenty days to USA. For the Far East
and Australia it may
take a little bit longer.
Telephone IDD (code +255) is available. The local network in Dar es Salaam
(IDD +22) is
being rehabilitated with Japanese assistance. Zanzibar IDD is + 54.
There are over 93,000 lines in use with over 1668 telex lines in
use. Mobile telephone services are also available in the main towns, provided by
Celtel, Vodacom, Buzz, Mobitel and Zantel. In mainland Tanzania, there were 3 main
telephone lines per 1,000 people in 1995.
Telex and fax facilities are
available at hotels: (e-mail and Internet facilities are also
available at major international hotels) telex also from main post
office in Dar-es-Salaam: telegrams from the post office.
IT has picked up
rapidly in Tanzania and there are over 100 servers services
providers in the country.
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Major road links are all-weather,
but only 3,660km of the 55,550km of classified roads are bituminised. Some l,200 km. are classified as highways, with 57%
rated as in good condition in 1994. Many roads have been upgraded
under a US$750m long-term World Bank road improvement programme
begun in 1989.
There are two railway systems,
running on different gauges. One links Dar-es- Salaam with northern
Tanzania and Kenya (Tanzania Railways Corporation, gauge 1m.): the
other links Dar-es-Salaam to Zambia (Tanzania-Zambia Railways
Authority or Tazara. gauge 3ft. 6in.). Recently
rehabilitated, the Tazara line has been making an operating profit,
although competition from South Africa and Mozambique reduced Tazara
volumes to one-third of capacity. Copper freight from land-locked Zambia is the
chief source of the line’s revenue.
Tanzania’s main ports are at
Dar-es-Salaam (11 deep-water berths), Mtwara, Tanga and Zanzibar. A
daily boat service - almost on the hour every hour from 7.30 a.m.
till 5 p.m.- carries passengers and freight between
Dar-es-Salaam and Zanzibar. In January 1996 passenger services
between Mwanza and Kisumu (Kenya) began again. Ferryboats provide
freight and passenger transport on Lake Victoria. In May 1996,
Tanzania experienced its worst shipping disaster when the ferryboat
MV Bukoba sank in Lake Victoria and more than 900 people were
There are three international
airports (Dar-es-Salaam, -DIA-, Kilimanjaro -KIA-, and Zanzibar
-ZIA) and over 50 local airports and airstrips. As Tanzania is a
very large country with a scattered population, air services have
become the most significant form of internal transport for official
and business travel. Air Tanzania Corporation (ATC), established in
1977, runs international services and domestic flights to all main
towns. Small planes, from charter companies, fly to towns and to
bush airstrips. Mission Aviation Fellowship (MAF) serves
Church workers and NGO's working in remote upcountry areas.
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ECONOMY AND FINANCE
The economy is heavily
dependent on agriculture, which accounts for 57% of GDP , provides
85% of exports, and employs 90% of the total work force, most of
whom are at subsistence level. GDP totalled US$8.67 billion
per annum as at August 2003 which equated to US$269 per Capita
(source: SADC report in Dar es Salaam Guide (ISSN Nº: 0865 6410)).
GNI per capita: US $330 (World Bank, 2005). Topography and
dependence on climatic conditions, however, limit cultivated crops
to only 4% of the land area. Industry accounts for 17% of GDP and is
mainly limited to processing agricultural products and light
consumer goods. The economic recovery programme announced in
mid-1986 has generated notable increases in agricultural production
and financial support for the program by bilateral donors. The World
Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and bilateral donors have
provided funds to rehabilitate Tanzania’s weak economic
infrastructure. Growth in 1991-96 has featured a pickup in
industrial production and a substantial increase in output of
minerals, led by gold. Recent banking reforms have helped increase
private sector growth and investment. Imports amounted to US$
0.66 Billion (CIF) for 2000 and exports accounted for earnings of
US$1.34 Billion (FOB) in the same year.
Unit of currency:
Tanzanian shilling which was valued at TZS 2,471 = GB£1 (Stg) on
12th February 2007,
from TSh 20=£1 (Stg) in 1985. The currency became convertible within
the East African region in 1996.
Tanzania came to
independence with a severely underdeveloped economy and extremely
limited infrastructure. In an effort to create socially equitable
and rapid development, it became in early proponent of African
socialism, Ujamaa (roughly meaning Togetherness),
launched in 1967 under the banner of Arusha Declaration, with
nationalisation of banking, finance, industry and large-scale trade,
marketing through boards, and the resettlement of peasants in
communal villages, vijiji vya ujamaa , created out of
large estates. Tanzania was able to record progress in education and
health but, after an initial boom, the formal economic base shrank:
production fell and the parallel economy became a way of life. The
Ugandan war, falls in commodity prices and failures of the policy
itself in economic terms, brought the country to the verge of
bankruptcy by the mid-1980s. Since 1986, however, with the coming to
power the second government of Ali Hassan Mwinyi, new policy
directions and IMF backed structural adjustment programmes have (at
a considerable cost to social programmes) helped integrate the
parallel economy and stimulate growth, which has been ahead of
population growth since 1986. In 1990s, a new economic policy of
Liberalisation was introduced under the banner of Zanzibar
Declaration, revisiting some economic aspects of the Arusha
Declaration. Together with this growth, however, the policy brought
its ugly face to the fore: corruption and sleaze. In 1996, with the
coming to power of the third phase government of Benjamin Mkapa,
under the banner of fighting corruption and sleaze, the IMF secured
agreement for a three-year loan of US$234m under the enhanced
structural adjustment facility in support of the government’s reform
programme for 1996-1999. Improvements in production and exports have
contributed to continued steady growth through the first half of the
are being taken and legislation for a stock exchange has been
passed. The World Bank’s soft-loan arm, IDA, has provided US$13m to
finance a five-year plan for mining development. This has helped to
attract a number of international companies which began new
operations in Tanzania in 1995 and1996 (see "Mining"
The principal exports are coffee,
cotton, manufactures, cashew nuts, cloves, minerals, tea, sisal, tobacco and
pyrethrum; the main imports are machinery and transport equipment,
textiles and clothing, petroleum products and food and drink. Main
export partners are Germany, Japan, India, Belgium-Luxembourg and
Britain. Main import partners are Britain, Kenya, Japan, Saudi
Arabia, India and China.
Tanzania is a
member of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) and the
Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). In March
1996 Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda set up the East
African Co-operation Secretariat, reviving the old
economic ties of the defunct: East African Community, with the
object of assisting mutual trade and investment co-operation between
the three countries (see below East African
in mainland Tanzania
36 per cent of
Tanzanians fall below the basic needs poverty line: 39 per cent in
rural areas, 18 per cent in urban Dar es Salaam, and 26 per cent in
other urban areas.
19 per cent fall
below the food poverty line: 20 per cent in rural areas, 8 per cent
in urban Dar es Salaam and 13 per cent in other urban areas.
The Gini coefficient
rose from 0.34 to 0.35 over the 1990’s showing a slight rise
overall in inequality. The biggest rise in inequality has been
within Dar es Salaam. Average consumption per person in Dar es
Salaam is 2.6 times higher than the rural average.
A quarter of adults have
no education and 29 per cent can neither read nor write. Rural women
in particular have missed out, 41 per cent are unable to read or
failed to improve between 1996 and 1999 – the last year in which
national population-based statistics are available. Although
definitive new figures will not be available until 2005, there are
signs of improvement since 1999. Sentinel surveillance data
indicates a marked reduction in all-age mortality rates and an
improvement in the proportion of births attended by trained
HIV/AIDS: Among blood
donors over the age of 15, 11.01% were infected (2001), compared to
9.9% in the previous year. The number of people living with HIV is
estimated to have increased by 3% to 2.23 million. AIDS orphans
exceed 1 million.
6 per cent of
households have one or more members with a bank account and 4 per
cent participate in an informal savings group. Rural households are
on average 37 kilometres from a bank.
Figures from the Household Budget Survey 2000/01,
the Poverty and Human Development Report 2002 and sentinel
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The economy is
dominated by agriculture. Subsistence crops are maize, rice and
wheat; cash crops are coffee (grown on large estates), cotton,
tobacco and cashew nuts (grown by peasant farmers) and tea and sisal
(grown on estates). Tanzania's agriculture is vulnerable to erratic
Zanzibar exports cloves, copra
and spices. Cotton farming has suffered from price falls in the
international market over 1995 and 1996, and has had problems of
pest-incursion over the past few years.
agricultural inputs (fertiliser, farm tools), process agricultural
products (cigarettes, canned meats, beer, pyrethrum and shelled
cashews) or aim at import substitution (textiles and
Factory production has
stagnated in the past decade, and many plants have for some years
been producing below capacity; some of these are being privatised,
and others are being closed.
Gold, diamonds and gemstones
are the most important minerals. The proportion of GDP is rising
with the absorption of the parallel economy into the
Mining is also now
attracting new foreign interest. Major or new investors (some in
joint ventures) include: gold: Ashanti Goldfields (Ghana), Pangea
Goldfields (Canada) and Sutton Resources (Canada); nickel and
cobalt: Sutton Resources. In addition, a group of West Australian
companies was exploring the feasibility of re-opening the abandoned
gold-workings to the south of Lake Victoria in 1996. A number of
positive measures have been taken to invigorate the sector,
including the introduction of the Mining
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Driving and local transport:
keep to the left. International driving permit recommended, to be
endorsed by the police on arrival. Temporary licences are also
available. The State Travel Service provides an inexpensive bus
service to and from airports: there are also private buses and
minibuses in Dar-es-Salaam. Taxis are available in towns. Self-drive
car hire is expensive; hiring a car with a driver is
New Yeas Day
Zanzibar Revolutionary Day (12
Good Friday (6
Monday (9 April 2007)
Union Day - National
Day (26 April)
Workers' Day (1 May)
Fair Day (7 July)
Farmers’ Day (8
Nyerere Day (14 October)
Independence Day and
Republic Day (9 December)
Christmas Day (25
Boxing Day (26
Idd El-Hajj (1
day - depends on moon sighting)
Idd El-Fitr (End of Ramadan) (2
days - depends on moon sighting)
Maulidi Day (1 day
- Prophet Muhammad’s birthday - depends on moon sighting)
[The dates of Muslim
festivals are finalised according to local sightings of the phases
of the moon and like Good Friday and Easter Monday vary from year to year]
volts AC, 50Hz: round or square 3-pin plugs, fused or unfused.
0800-1200hr and 1400-1630hr Monday to Friday,
0800-1230hr (some private businesses) Saturdays.
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Path to Socialism and Beyond
The History of Tanzania
is often only thought of as having started with the European
Colonialists, but the truth of course is that the land and its
people go back a lot further. That said even then its course
was charted in much the same way as the British Isles, with
"invasions" and visits of those from other lands.
The 8th century saw the
growth of city states along coast after settlement by Arabs from Oman.
It was seven centuries later in 1499 that the Portuguese navigator
Vasco da Gama visited the island of Zanzibar, and another
100 years or so before in the 16th century the Portuguese occupied Zanzibar, defeated coastal states, and exerted spasmodic control over them.
Their time did not last
for long as in 1699 the Portuguese were ousted from Zanzibar by Arabs of
Oman who had returned to make it their own. So in the 18th century
the Sultan of Oman reasserted Arab overlordship of the East African coast, which became subordinate to Zanzibar.
The 1744 - 1837 Revolt of
the ruler of Mombassa against Oman spanned 93 years until final victory of Oman.
Under the 1822 Moresby Treaty
Britain recognised regional dominance of Zanzibar, but protested against the slave trade.
By 1840 when Sultan Seyyid bin Sultan moved his capital from Oman to Zanzibar; trade in slaves and ivory flourished.
The 1861 Sultanates of Zanzibar and Oman separated on the death of
During the 19th century,
Europeans started to explore inland, closely followed by Christian missionaries.
In 1884 the German Colonization Society began to acquire territory on
the mainland in defiance of Zanzibar and 1890 Britain obtained protectorate
status over Zanzibar, abolished the slave trade, and recognised German claims to
German East Africa
was formally established as a colony in 1897.
The 1905 - 06 Maji Maji revolt
was brutally suppressed by German troops.
World events then took
over with the outbreak of the First World War, and far as it was
from Europe, German East Africa was not immune from the
fighting, though effective fighting was short lived due to the
successful 1916 Conquest of German East Africa by British and South African
forces, led by Gen Jan Smuts.
Britain was thus, at the the
turn of the last century, mainly concerned with the islands of Zanzibar
In 1919, the
League of Nations gave Britain a mandate to administer part of
German East Africa, now known as Tanganyika. (Belgium, with a
similar mandate, took over the administration of Ruanda and Urundi =
Rwanda and Burundi.) In 1946 Tanganyika became a UN trust
A legislative council was set
up in 1926, it was enlarged in 1945 and restructured in 1955 to give
equal representation to Africans, Asians and Europeans, sitting as
30 "'unofficials" with the 31 "officials". In 1954, a schoolteacher,
Julius Nyerere, founded the Tanganyika African
National Union (TANU), which promoted African nationalism and won a
large public following campaigning for independence. The colonial authorities responded with
constitutional changes increasing the voice of the African
population while reserving seats for minority
Elections were held in 1958-9
and again in 1960. The result was an overwhelming victory for TANU,
which was by this time campaigning for independence as well as
majority rule. The new government and British Government agreed at a
constitutional conference in London to full independence for
Tanganyika in December 1961. Zanzibar achieved independence in 1963
as a separate and sovereign country, under the al-Busaidy
Tanganyika became a republic
in December 1962, one year after achieving independence, and the
direct presidential election brought TANU’s leader, Julius
to the presidency. In 1965 the Constitution was changed to establish
a one-party system. Meanwhile, in Zanzibar, a revolution had
overthrown the Arab Sultan on 12th January 1964. One
month after independence the Constitution was abrogated; Abedi Amani Karume was declared the first African
President of Peoples’ Republic of Zanzibar and the country became a
one-party state under the Afro-Shirazi Party.
On 26th April 1964
Tanganyika and Zanzibar united as the United Republic of
Tanzania, with Julius Nyerere as President and the head of state,
while Karume as his Vice President, retained at the same time the Presidency of Zanzibar.
In 1971 Karume was
assassinated in Zanzibar and Aboud Jumbe succeeded him
as President of Zanzibar and Vice President of
In 1977, the two ruling
parties: TANU and Afro Shirazi Party, merged to form the Chama
Cha Mapinduzi (CCM). In the same year the EAC was dissolved.
Tanzanian troops intervened in Uganda
in 1987 to help overthrow President Idi Amin.
In 1984 Jumbe resigned his posts and
Hassan Mwinyi was elected to replace him in
In 1985 Nyerere stepped down
voluntarily as Head of State and Ali Hassan Mwinyi succeeded him as
Head of State, Idriss Abdul Wakil replaced Mwinyi in
Presidential elections, for
the Union, were held every five years from 1965 with, under the
one-party system, the electorate voting yes or no to a single
presidential candidate. In general elections (held at the same time
as the presidential elections) the choice was between two candidates
put forward by the CCM. Pressure for reform grew within Tanzania and
among international donors. The Government of Ali Hassan Mwinyi
responded with constitutional changes which permitted opposition
parties from 1992 and so brought in a multiparty system under which
parliamentary and presidential elections were held in October 1995
and contested by 13 political
In 1990, Abdul Wakil, having
completed one term in office, declined to stand for a second term in
office in Zanzibar and Salmin Amour replaced him and
was elected a few months later as President of Zanzibar and
2nd Vice President of the Union.
After Mr Nyerere's resignation in 1985, his successor, Ali Hassan
Mwinyi, attempted to raise productivity and attract foreign
investment and loans by dismantling Government control of the
policy continued under Benjamin William Mkapa, who was
elected president in 1995. The economy has grown, though at the
price of painful fiscal reforms. Tourism is an important revenue
earner; Tanzania's attractions include Africa's highest mountain,
Kilimanjaro, and wildlife-rich national parks such as the Serengeti.
Benjamin Mkapa is credited with being the driving force behind
Tanzania's extensive economic liberalisation, which has been well
received by the IMF and the World Bank.
Under his presidency
inflation dropped, the economy grew and Tanzania's foreign debt was
wiped. But Mkapa's critics say that, behind the statistics, most
Tanzanians remain impoverished.
Kikwete of CCM was elected as
the fourth Head of State of the United Republic of Tanzania in
Before being elected
President, Kikwete, a former military officer, served as Foreign
Affairs Minister from 1995 when Mkapa took office. He had
earlier served as Minister for Finance and Minister for Energy and
Minerals. His running mate in the 2005 elections was Dr Ali Mohammed
Shein. Kikwete is the only member of parliament in Bagamoyo District
who has represented a constituency for three consecutive terms.
He started as an MP
for Bagamayo and later for Chalinze when the district was divided
into two constituencies in 1995.
Jakaya Kikwete, who
was 55 at the time of his election as President, is married and has
He has vowed to
continue the economic reforms set in motion by the outgoing
president, Benjamin Mkapa, and to create jobs and tackle poverty.
CCM also hold 206 of the 232 elected seats in the
National Parliament (2005-2010).
Of the remaining 26 seats, CUF hold 19, Chadema 5, and UDP and TLP
have one seat apiece.
The House has a total of 324 Parliamentarians, who
comprise the constituency representatives (232), Special Women's
Seats (75), Zanzibar House of Representatives (5), Presidential
nominees (10), the Attorney General and the Speaker.
The political union
between Zanzibar and mainland Tanzania has weathered more than four
decades of change. Zanzibar has its own parliament and president.
A bomb exploded at the US embassy in Dar-es-Salaam
in August 1998, killing 6 people and injuring 60. responsibility was claimed
by an anti-American Islamic group.
Mwalimu Julius Kambarage
Nyerere died on 14th
October 1999 aged seventy seven.
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NATIONAL POLITICS. |
Presidential and parliamentary elections under the
multiparty system were held on 29 October 1995, and contested by 13
Parties. These were Tanzania’s first multiparty
elections in 30 years. At Tanzania’s request, a team of Commonwealth
observers attended. The elections were not completed on schedule, as
the National Electoral Commission found irregularities at certain
polling stations. As a result, it annulled the vote in seven
Dar-es-Salaam constituencies and arranged for these to be re-run on
17 November. The Commonwealth observers concurred with the view of
the Commission. On 13 November, ten opposition parties announced
that they would boycott the repeat elections, and all the opposition
presidential candidates withdrew.
After the re-run elections
on 17 November 1995, the CCM emerged with a substantial majority
(approximately 75% of the vote) in the parliamentary elections. The
presidential election held at the same time brought to power CCM
leader Benjamin Mkapa. (Mwinyi, who had
served two terms as President, was not eligible to stand again and
had retired before the election.) Mkapa was duly inaugurated as President of Tanzania.
In Zanzibar, the 2000 election
returns were strongly disputed by the opposition. The CUF (Civic
United Front), which enjoys strong support on Pemba, claimed
-contrary to the result legally declared by the Electoral
Commission- that its leader Seif Shariff Hamad was
returned as President; it therefore refused to recognise the
officially returned President, Dr. Salmin Amour of the
CCM. The CUF, with 48% of seats in the Zanzibar House of
Representatives, decided to boycott the house and refused to
recognise the dully elected President of Zanzibar. Political tension
followed ever since, where some CUF’s supporters -with the
encouragement from few members of leadership- vied to make the
Island ungovernable. Verbal political skirmishes between active
supporters of both parties increased. Mwalimu Nyerere (with the
backing of the Organisation of African Unity) called on Zanzibar
leadership to resolve the "impasse" by forming a coalition
government of CCM and CUF. However, due to CUF’s behaviour in
addition to their demand for presidency for Hamad , Amour could not
accept the advice and hence there has been an "impasse". Although
the presidential election result remained disputed by CUF, its
leader Hamad had become increasingly marginalised by spring
Mkapa has instituted a
high-profile drive against corruption and financial malpractice. At
the end of September 1996, the Parliamentary Select Committee set up
to investigate alleged misdealings called on the President to summon
to account some officers in a number of high government offices and
some ministries. A number of officers, some with high ranks in the
government, were either dismissed or voluntarily resigned. Ever
since, Mkapa’s stance on fighting corruption and sleaze remained
December 2005. CCM remain the ruling party.
Next elections: by
October 2010 (presidential and legislative).
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Chama Cha Mapinduzi
National Convention for
Construction and Reform (NCCR-Mageuzi)
Civic United Front (CUF
-Chama Cha Wananchi)
Chama Cha Demokrasia na
The Union For Multiparty
Democracy (UMD) of Tanzania.
National League for
Tanzania People’s Party
United People’s Democratic
Popular National Party
Tanzania Democratic Alliance
Tanzania Labour Party (TLP)
The United Democratic Party
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The Legal System is based on English common
law, together with the 1977 Union and 1985 Zanzibar constitutions
(amended). There is a High Court consisting of a Jaji Kiongozi
and 29 judges: above that is the Court of Appeal made up of the
Chief Justice and four judges of appeal. Magistrates’ courts are of
three kinds: People’ s Courts, District Courts and Primary
Under the new
constitutional arrangements of 1992, Tanzania has a Union Parliament
of 232 members elected by universal adult suffrage, drawn from 52
new and 180 pre-existing constituencies, plus 36 female nominees:
one seat is reserved for the Attorney-General. The President is
elected in separate presidential elections held simultaneously with
the general elections. He or she must represent a registered
political party and have a running mate for the position of
Vice-President of the Union. Constitutionally, if the President
comes from one part of the Union, Vice President must come from the
other part of the Union. The current Vice President is Dr.
Omar Ali Juma from Zanzibar.
The Zanzibar administration
has its own President and a House of Representatives of 50 elected
members and nine female nominees, for legislation on Non-Union
matters (health, agriculture, tourism, primary and secondary
education, roads, local governments, and external trade). General
elections are held every five years with universal adult suffrage.
The constitutional changes of 1992 introduced a multiparty system
both in Tanzania and Zanzibar. In both parts of the Union, the
Presidents may serve a maximum of two five-year terms
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RECENT EVENTS |
Tanzania has a long unmatched record in the region
of assisting refugees: over the years there have been sizeable
influxes of refugees from Uganda, Mozambique and the Democratic
Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire). By early 1996, it had granted
temporary asylum to over 730,000 refugees from the civil war in
Rwanda; over 300,000 from Burundi; over 50,000 from Congo in early
1997, but with peace in the country by mid-year, people were
beginning to return.
Tanzania is also
endeavouring to stimulate growth through regional co-operation.
Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda were formerly linked in the East African
Community, founded in 1967, which provided shared services in
communications and the co-ordination of commerce, industry and
finance. The Community was dissolved in 1977, during Idi
dictatorship in Uganda. Efforts were made to revive it after Amin’s
fall. In 1996 - the potentially most promising sign of its
resuscitation in recent years -Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda set up an East
African Co-operation Secretariat, which was designed to assist in
developing mutual trade and investment.
The East African
Co-operation’s objectives are to:-
strengthen and consolidate
co-operation in agreed fields with a view to bringing about
equitable development among the Member States and thereby uplift
the living standards and quality of life of the people;
- promote sustainable
utilisation of the region’s natural resources and put in place
measures for effective protection of the environment;
- enhance the role of women in
- promote peace, security and
good neighbourliness in the region.
to promote the spirit of
regional co-operation which is deeply rooted in the history of
the region and in the minds of its people, while avoiding the
errors which similar endeavours committed in the past;
the existing forces which have a major interest in the
strengthening of regional institutions and in the free movement
of people, capital, goods, as well as services and information
within the region;
immediate emphasis on economic co-operation, with a view to
promoting enhanced political co-operation and integration in the
long run; and
institutional capacities for regional co-operation with the EAC
Secretariat as a small but effective co-ordinating body, to
organise and supervise special activities, studies and research
aimed at facilitating decision making in areas relevant to
Within the last two years of
its existence, EAC has achieved a lot, including the following: -
- Free movement Currency:
The three East African currencies are now convertible. Kenya and
Uganda have either technically abolished exchange controls or in
practice do not enforce them. Tanzania has some restrictions on
capital but not current accounts.
much has been achieved.
- Harmonised customs
documentation: being progressed.
- Customs Duty Collection at
first point of entry: the first draft has now been prepared.
- Introduction of EAC Common
Passport: agreed. Passport printed but not yet distributed.
- Study on Common External
Tariff: initial studies nearly complete.
- Introduction of COMESA
standards on motor vehicles: road transport agreement to be
signed in April, 98.
- Formulation of EAC Digital
Transmission Telecommunication: Done.
- Common Oil and Gas
completed on Kampala link.
- Develop EA power supply
master plan: task force aiming to complete its work by end
of April 1998.
- Study on impact of
liberalisation of tourist industry: First draft completed.
- Establish EA industrial
standards for local manufactures: 42 our of 105 agreed.
- Co-ordination on Fiscal and
Monetary Policies. In progress.
- Double Taxation Agreement
between EAC States: negotiated and signed.
Tanzania hosted a
regional summit in late July 1996 - in response to the political and
ethnically motivated killings in the eastern neighbouring countries-
to co-ordinate responses in eastern Africa following the military
coup in Burundi. The governments of Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Tanzania,
Zimbabwe, Zambia, Ethiopia and Democratic Republic of Congo, agreed
to impose sanctions against Burundi. For its part, Tanzania also
closed the land and air borders, and blocked oil supplies.
Tanzania’s former President Nyerere was persuaded to act as the
facilitator of the peace talks with the support of international
communities. Before his death in 1999 Nyerere made several efforts
to broker peace in Rwanda and Burundi. President Bill Clinton was
able to come to be present at the signing ceremony.
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